Patrick Eccles, an architecture student from University of Utah, was gored today along with two Spaniards in the annual "Running of the Bulls" in Pamplona, Spain. The bravado tradition is part of the seven-day festival of Sanfermines. Traditional garb includes a white shirt and red scarf. It is considered extra brave to touch the bulls during the running (see video below).
In the above images of the brave Mr. Eccles we can see an excellent snapshot of the facial manifestations of significant pain. Note how his eyebrows are lowered and his eyelids are clenched tightly to the point of closure. Coincident with this is the raising of his cheeks [orbicularis oculi (pars orbitalis)]. Mid-face tightening is also very prominent here - most easily seen by the dramatic dilation of his nostrils. The upper "bridge" of the nose is also wrinkled. The upper lip is elevated significantly and the corners of the lips are pulled tight and stretched outward (laterally). Baring of the teeth as Patrick shows here is also highly typical.
One facial expression-body language signal that is very difficult for most to feign is the selective contraction of the central forehead muscles [abbreviated CFC for the frontalis (pars medialis) muscle]. Glance at the above image and you can see that Mr. Eccles central forehead is tightly contracted with the outer (lateral) portions not contracted and smooth. It is extremely rare for significant pain to be present in the absence of this classic display of contraction of the central forehead muscles.
Patrick reportedly had to have his spleen removed. Good luck and a speedy recovery Mr. Eccles.
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