During their recent visit to Normandy to honor the 70th Anniversary of the D-Day invasion, much was made about the tension between Vladimir Putin and other heads of State - particularly Barack Obama.
Note in this first image, Mr. Putin displays a "Central Forehead Contraction" (CFC) with what appears to be (low resolution and indirect angle) a very slight right sided, insincere mouth smile - with a degree of contempt.
In this image Vladimir Putin displays a CFC with a slight degree of regret.
In this photo, although the angle is not optimal, the Russian President's mouth appears to be relatively neutral - yet his central forehead contraction is again seen.
When a person feels emotionally uncomfortable but desires to not let it show (e.g. feeling beta but wants to appear alpha) - he or she will very often over-use their central forehead muscles. Putin is doing so in these examples. He very much fees the odd man out.
Although the use of the CFC can indicate a number of completely different emotions depending on the other body language signal which accompanies it (a nonverbal cluster-context) - the over-use of the central forehead contraction can be a reliable indicator for feelings of insincerity, inferiority and seeking validation.
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